Twenty-third Sunday in Ordinary Time

With the permission from CBF General secretariat

First Reading Ezekiel 33:7–9
Psalm Psalm 95:1–2, 6–9
Second Reading Romans 13:8–10
Gospel Matthew 18:15–20

Gospel Matthew 18:15–20

“If another member of the church sins against you, go and point out the fault when the two of you are alone. If the member listens to you, you have regained that one. But if you are not listened to, take one or two others along with you, so that every word may be confirmed by the evidence of two or three witnesses. If the member refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church; and if the offender refuses to listen even to the church, let such a one be to you as a Gentile and a tax collector.

Truly I tell you, whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven. Again, truly I tell you, if two of you agree on earth about anything you ask, it will be done for you by my Father in heaven. For where two or three are gathered in my name, I am there among them.”

Hearing the Word


There is a constant interaction between members of the civil society, and the Christian community. Constantly interacting with one another, they, inevitably experience a wide range of human behavior. s Some of these behaviors are positive and edifying, while others are negative and destructive. The liturgy of today focuses on the response to those behaviors and situations which go contrary to Christian faith, and which threaten the community.
Ezekiel’s mission was very similar to that of Jeremiah’s – to prophesy the impending and inevitable destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple, caused by Israel’s infidelities and sins. Chapter 33 of Ezekiel’s book emphasizes the prophet’s responsibility to act as “a sentinel” (a watchman), to warn and admonish the unfaithful nation. This mission was so important that God warned Ezekiel, that if he would not deliver the message of warning and repentance to the sinners, the punishment for their sins would fall upon him. His troubling message was so important because, in time, it would constitute the first step leading to the nation’s repentance and restoration in the future.
The prophet’s mission was to deliver a message of warning regardless of the peoples’ acceptance or rejection of it. While repentance remained a personal choice, the prophet’s task was to deliver the unpopular and challenging message no matter what, because, without it, repentance would never happen. As God’s mouthpiece Ezekiel played an indispensable part in changing the fortunes of the unfaithful people, and transforming them into a renewed community open to God’s Spirit, and living faithfully as God’s people (cf. Ezek 36:22-28).
The second reading comes from a collection of exhortations and instructions written for the Roman Christian community. In this passage, Paul reminds Christians of their duties and obligations towards secular authorities – they are to be exemplary citizens, and not troublemakers (cf. Rom 13:1-7). Following these statements, Paul turns to discuss the key duty of a Christian towards a fellow community member. He stated that love sums up all the precepts of the Jewish Law – all commandments governing human relationships are contained within the command to love. He also defined love as that which “does no wrong to a neighbor”. Taken positively, this statement means that love, above all, seeks the good and well-being of another person. This is perhaps the clearest and simplest expressions of what Christian love is all about.
Even though the apostle did not explicitly mention it, seeking the good of another person entails helping him or her to avoid harmful and dangerous behavior, as Paul himself will do in the verses that immediately follow today’s passage (cf. Rom 13:11-14). Following the command to love with a series of warnings, Paul demonstrated that cautioning and admonishing Christians against what jeopardizes their moral and religious integrity, is one of the key expressions of Christian love. Correction and admonition of fellow community members is the duty of every committed believer.
Today’s Gospel reading comes from the Matthean passage commonly called “the sermon on the Church”. In it, Jesus’ teaching focuses on the internal life of the Christian community, with solving conflicts, and with dealing with wrongdoing, as the most important issues addressed. The most detailed instruction which Jesus provides is a detailed procedure on how to deal with wrongful behavior. He outlines a three-step process which begins with dialogue between the two members in conflict. This is followed by bringing in two or three other members to facilitate the correction and admonition. If everything else fails and the conflict is not settled, the issue should be brought to the attention of the entire community for judgment and eventual exclusion of the guilty party from the community. The unrepentant offender would no longer be treated as a community member, but as a “Gentile and a tax collector”.
The reason for such harsh measures lies in the perception of the community as a space where God is present. For the Israelites, the location which contained God’s presence in this world was the Jerusalem Temple. Thanks to Jesus, this role was taken up by the Christian community.
Moreover, Jesus teaches that the Christian community, acting in unity, has the capacity to discern God’s will. In the Gospel of the 21st Sunday we read that Peter was given the authority to “bind and loosen”, which meant determining God’s will for the community. The same is said in today’s Gospel about the Christian community which, when gathered, has the capacity to determine God’s will for the world. This is so, because, when gathered and united in Jesus’ name, a group of individuals becomes united with him and united to God through him. For this reason, the prayers of such a group will always be answered, since they reflect God’s own will. Conflicts and scandals undermine the unity of this body, they destroy it. Therefore, conflicts and wrongdoings must be dealt with swiftly and decisively. Admonition and correction are, therefore, essential for ensuring that the Christian community remains true to its nature and function.
Correcting others is never an easy or popular task. It is so much simpler to remain silent and indifferent towards others’ misbehavior. Yet, today’s liturgy emphasizes that, while such restraint might be understandable, it is not acceptable. It was not acceptable for Ezekiel to remain silent regarding his peoples’ transgressions, because his inaction would have compromised their future. Paul taught that the command to love is fulfilled, at least partially, by warning and admonition of the fellow Christians when they go astray and compromise themselves by misguided behavior and questionable ideas. In the Gospel Jesus sets out a detailed procedure for correcting others and ending conflicts. The reason for the necessity of such correction lies in maintaining the unity of the community, because in that unity God’s will is revealed and Jesus’s presence is embodied. Bringing others to repentance through correction of harmful behaviors is, therefore, not an option but an essential part of being a Christian. Such practices, called “fraternal correction” – correcting others in the spirit of compassion – aim to improve the quality of individual life and protect the unity and integrity of the community. The Psalmist recognized this necessity well, when he followed his call to worship God with a warning against obstinacy and rebelliousness saying, “O that today you would listen to his voice! Do not harden your hearts, as at Meribah, as on the day at Massah in the wilderness”.

Listening to the Word of God

On September 4, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI, during the Sunday Angelus at the courtyard of the Papal Summer Residence, Castel Gandolfo, said, “ …If my brother commits a sin against me I must treat him charitably and first of all, speak to him privately, pointing out that what he has said or done is wrong. This approach is known as ‘fraternal correction’: it is not a reaction to the offence suffered but is motivated by love for one’s brethren.”
The pope further quoted St. Augustine to buttress his elucidation of fraternal correction – “Whoever has offended you, in offending you has inflicted a serious injury upon himself; and would you not care for a brother’s injury?… You must forget the offence you have received but not the injury of one of your brethren.”
Different people react differently to wrongdoings. There are some people who choose to be silent when they see something go wrong. These are spectators and not active participants in the drama of life. Others prefer to talk about what they have seen, but they do so with everyone except the person at the center of the act of misdemeanor. These are the gossips. They always have something to say about brother A or sister B. Even those who bring to the attention of an offender what they have seen or heard, some choose to attack rather than bring healing to an injured brother or sister.
However, there are some who are not mere spectators, gossips or attackers. Upon seeing a brother or sister trapped in an inferno, they would run into the fire, break the door and help bring out the victim. These are the ‘keepers of the brethren’. There is an African proverb which says, “When one hut goes in flames, it is the whole village that has been set on fire.” Wrongdoing, even if it is not directed at us personally, is offensive, and when an offence is not appropriately addressed, sooner or later it becomes an obstacle that would cause many to trip and sprawl on the floor.
Against this backdrop, we can understand the call of Ezekiel to be a “watchman”. His role as a watchman was to ensure that evil would not overwhelm and annihilate his brothers and sisters in the community. The concern that the prophet Ezekiel was called upon to exhibit is further exemplified in the first verse of the Gospel – “If your brother does something wrong, go and have it out with him alone, between your two selves…” This is love in action. Love for one another, according to Paul, is “the only thing you should owe to anyone.”
The Church has rightly been described as “a hospital for sinners and not a museum for saints”. The Church is made up of wounded men and women who are being treated for various ailments. The wounds of some members may be repugnant, but such people need help not condemnation. If the help we offer them personally does not help, the Gospel text encourages us to bring on board one or two others. If this too is not sufficient, the whole community is to be called upon to help. It is only when the wounded brother or sister has shown clearly that he is unwilling to be helped that the text commands us to “treat him like a gentile or tax collector.” Perhaps, this is to ensure that the infections of an untreated wound do not infect others.
The inseparable friends in “The Three Musketeers” (originally a novel by Alexandre Dumas) have as their motto, “All for one, one for all.” Inherent in this motto is a certain sense of readiness to be there for one another. A beautiful skyscraper, a termite hill or a group of fishermen hauling a net full of fish is an efficacious reminder of the power of a healthy community. Great things happen in places where the spirit of oneness is fostered.



Have I deliberately closed my eyes to wrongdoing in my family or community?
What is my response to corrections received from those who care about me?

Response to God

We cannot bring the desired change in our world when we have not succeeded in bringing change to our own personal lives. I will persist in prayer for an honest and insightful self-perception, to avoid delusions about myself and stand in truth before my God and others.

Response to your World

I will gather up courage and challenge a person whose inappropriate actions I have observed for a long time. I will employ the procedure set out by Jesus to do so.
Is there something that we as a group can do to address and challenge some of the mistakes and wrongdoing we observe taking place around us?


Almighty God, we pray for all communities that have been wounded by divisions and individuals who feel alienated by their community on account of wrongdoing. May your waters of peace quench the flames of evil that seek to destroy the lives of your people and foster in them a sense of oneness and wholeness. Amen.